We will present this trip a little different than most of the earlier articles
we have featured here.
Personal comments will come first and then history be
presented at the end. Hopefully, these changes will help give you an idea of
how wrong some preconceived ideas can be (and unfortunately, I seem to have a
lot of them).
I was stationed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma for a period of time. I would travel through Arkansas on Interstate 40 when I went to visit relatives in Alabama. I would pass through the Fort Smith area (I knew that because I would see all the exit signs telling me it was the Fort Smith area). My idea of Fort Smith was that it was north of Interstate 40; it was a one-horse town with maybe a traffic light or two; and it probably had tobacco stains on it sidewalks. Like I said, I made those assumptions on my own without any help. Had I had some help, I might have gotten it correct.
A few years ago (probably 15 or so) I met a guy from the Fort Smith area. Ron and I became good friends and we shared a lot of childhood stores. The more I listened to Ron's stories the more I became interested in the Fort Smith area. So, being a world traveler as I am (slight humor, I hope), I actually researched the area and found it fascinating. As it would be, I had been planning a trip back to Oklahoma City, so I figured this would be a great time to actually see the area that Ron had been talking about so much.
So in a summary of what I found, Fort Smith has more than one traffic light, it is south of Interstate 40 and it is full of history. Gotta love it. I cannot wait to go back.
Fort Smith, the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County, has a population of 86,209 according to the 2010 Census. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the junction of the Arkansas and Poteau Rivers, also known as Belle Point. The city began as a western frontier military post in 1817 and would later become well known for its role in the settling of the "Wild West" and its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior to be the location of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum (which has not been built yet - as of this last visit).
The site of Fort Smith became part of the United States in the Louisiana Purchase (1803). Soon after, the Pike Expedition (1806) explored the Arkansas River. Fort Smith was founded in 1817 as a military post, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. Army sutler and land speculator John Rogers (who some genealogists claim to be an ancestor to 20th-century Oklahoma comedian Will Rogers) bought up former government-owned lands and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith, eventually influencing the federal government to re-establish a strong military presence at Fort Smith during the era of Indian Removal and the Mexican War.
Fort Smith's name comes from General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort. General Smith never visited the town or forts that bore his name.
In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, and expanded the base as part of the federal policy of removing Cherokees and Choctaws from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast and resettling the survivors in the nearby Indian Territory. Many displaced Native Americans settled down in Fort Smith and Van Buren, while Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith became a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee.
The fort was occupied by the Confederate Army during the early years of the Civil War. Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865. The town became a haven for runaway slaves, orphans, Southern Unionists, and other victims of the ferocious guerrilla warfare then raging in the Border States. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871. The town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops.
Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels, saloons and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring law and order to the region. He knew of a strong judge in Isaac Parker. But there was a problem. Judge Parker had been appointed Chief Justice of Utah Territory and confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayton, former governor of Arkansas, William Clayton was able to undo that appointment and redirect Judge Parker to Fort Smith.
Judge Isaac Parker (pictured to the right) served as U.S. District Judge 1875-1896. He was nicknamed the "Hanging Judge" because in his first term after assuming his post he tried eighteen people for murder, convicted fifteen of them, sentenced eight of those to die, and hanged six of them on one day. Over the course of his career in Fort Smith, Parker sentenced 160 people to hang. Of those, 79 actually were executed on the gallows. Judge Parker represented the only real law in the rough-and-tumble frontier border town. His courthouse is now a National Historic Site where "More men were put to death by the U.S. Government... than in any other place in American history."
William Clayton was appointed US Attorney by four different presidents and later served as Chief Justice of Indian Territory. He was instrumental in achieving statehood for Oklahoma and together with Territorial Governor Frank Frantz, carried the Oklahoma Constitution to President Teddy Roosevelt after that state was admitted in 1907. Governor Frantz and Judge Clayton both lost their territorial positions when Oklahoma was admitted to the Union. Fort Smith foresaw an economic boom in World War I and the 1920s when the US Armed Forces established the Fort Chaffee Military Reservation east of the city.